Transducer play a vital role in the field of instrumentation and control engineering. Any energy in a process needs to be converted from one form into another form to make the communication from one rectification sector to another. It is a device which converts one kind of energy into another form i.e. the given non-electrical power is converted into an electrical energy.
Types of transducer: There are two types of transducers, they may be: Active transducers and Passive transducers. Active transducers: Active transducer is really a device which converts the given non-electrical power into electricity on its own. Thermocouple, 3 Axis Load Cell and more are the most useful examples of the transducers
Passive transducers: Passive transducer is a device which converts the given non-electrical energy into electricity by external force. Resistance strain gauge, Differential Transformer are the examples for that Passive transducers.
The piezoelectric effect can be found in some materials (such as quartz) that have an atomic lattice structure forming a rhomboid or cubic cell. When pressure (mechanical stress) is used to the structure, it creates an electrical charge and, when an electric powered field is used, a mechanical deformation occurs. “Piezo” comes from the Greek word for pressure.
Piezo Transducer: A piezo transducer converts electric energy in mechanical energy or vice versa. Basically any kind of piezo mechanism could be referred to as a transducer. Piezoelectrics can respond very rapidly to operate voltage changes and for that reason are often used to generate vibrations or sound. Piezo transducers are employed in microphones, guitar sound pickups, speakers, buzzers, headphones, etc. The advantage of a piezo speaker spanning a magnetically driven speaker depends on the simplicity, compactness, efficiency and robustness from the piezo ceramic plates that are used to move the speaker diaphragm film.
Sonar and ultrasound imaging will also be based on Torque Sensor. In this case, the ultrasonic transducers are driven at their mechanical resonance frequency, a phenomenon that greatly boosts the amplitude while reducing the input power simultaneously, i.e. the system is operated at its highest efficiency.
Piezo Actuator vs. Transducer: In motion control applications, piezo mechanic elements are often referred to as a piezo actuators. A piezo actuator is usually used to generate forces or to position loads very precisely. In motion control applications piezo actuators are generally operated well below their mechanical resonant frequency.
Piezo resistive sensors: Piezoresistive sensors are low-cost, mass produced, typically silicon-based sensors which can be very widely used for pressure sensing applications. They may be sometimes used combined with piezo actuators to provide position feedback or force feedback, for instance on closed-loop microscope positioning stages. Piezoresistive means that the resistance changes using the applied pressure. Unlike piezo sensors, piezoresistive sensors usually do not produce a charge (energy) and they cannot convert mechanical in electricity and the other way round. In precision nano-positioning applications, piezoresistive sensors are a good choice for entry-level systems. Other sensors can be found when innovative performance is required.
Lifetime of Piezo Mechanic Actuators: If operated underneath the right conditions, the newest generation of ceramic-encapsulated actuators could work for 10’s of vast amounts of cycles.
Vibration Cancellation / Active Damping: Because of the fast response piezo mechanic actuators are a good option for active vibration cancellation.
Here, a vibration sensor must provide the controller the proper information about how to counteract the mechanical vibration by offering the best amplitude and phase output for the piezo actuator. The sensor can even be considered a piezo ceramic transducer, configured to respond to strain or pressure.
Momentum Compensation / Active Damping: Any type of rapid actuation will cause vibrations in a work piece. In accordance with Newton’s laws, what this means is, the faster a piezo mechanical system operates, the greater reactive forces it hdjjdy cause. Just in case these forces are unwanted, another piezo mechanical system using a counter mass could be integrated and driven using a signal of the opposite phase. With a little fine-tuning the forces of both actuators will cancel one another out and the work piece are now able to move quickly but without exerting any force on the surrounding structures. This trick is often utilized in fast Jr S Beam Load Cell for image stabilization in astronomical telescopes.
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